Are you searching for Branches of Life Sciences? here is the short guide on this topic.
Biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution. It can be divided into two main subjects: Botany (the study of plants) and Zoology (the study of animals), but this separation is not clear cut.
Life sciences are a group of advanced biology. Taxonomy (Systematics) involves the classification of organisms. Morphology is concerned with the size and form of whole organisms and their organs and the spatial relationships of the parts of the body to each other.
Histology is the study of the types of cells present in the body whereas cytology deals with the minute’s structure within the cell.
Embryology is the study of the development of organisms and physiology involves all the life processes and the functions of different organs and tissues.
Ecology deals with the relationship of organisms to one another and to their environment.
Genetics is the branch of biology devoted to the study of inheritance and paleontology deals with fossil organisms.
Branches of Life Sciences and its Classification
In Life Sciences, Plants can be classified as follows:
- Thallophyte: They have two sub-divisions. Algae and Fungi
- Bryophyta: They are two kinds. Mosses, and Liverworts
- Pteridophyta – They were the first land plants having vascular or conducting tissues
- Gymnosperms: They were the first land plants bearing naked seeds and fruits
The Animal kingdom is divided into two groups:
Invertebrate has the following subdivisions: Protozoa, Prolifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthese, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata
The vertebrates having a long skeletal structure called notochord which is replaced by a cartilaginous or bony backbone in higher chordates. Vertebrates are having five classes in the branches of life science they are the following classes:
- Pisces or Fishes
- Amphibian: These are cold-blooded vertebrates that have to return to the water for breeding. They have some advancement overfishes.
- Reptilian: These are the first land animals with the vertebral column. Though they are cold-blooded (Temperature of the body changes with the change of atmospheric temperature) but have a more complex bony skeleton and highly organized blood system than another amphibian, e.g. snaked, lizards, turtles, tortoises, crocodiles, and alligators.
- Aves or Birds:
- Mammalia: Mammals are the dominant land animals at present. They are warm-blooded (Temperature of the body does not change with the temperature of the atmosphere) and have glandular skin bearing hairs.
- The body cavity is divided into thorax and abdomen by a muscular diaphragm, the former containing the lungs and heart. The hearts are divided into four chambers. In the RBC have no nuclei.
- Pentadactyle (five figured) limbs are usually present and the skull is joined at its connection with the vertebral column so that the head can be moved.
The basic definition of life science is the scientific study of living organisms such as microorganisms, plants, animal and human beings. This is the centerpiece of the advanced life sciences like technological advances in Molecular biology and biotechnology.
The life sciences focus on a specific type of life like Zoology (Study of animals), Botany (Study of plants). It also focuses on common aspects of all life forms like Anatomy and Genetics. Here the advanced technological studies like Bio-engineering are also included. Simply the life sciences involve understanding the mind-neuroscience.
Basic Life Science Branches
Here are some branches of life science and their definitions
- Anatomy: The study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
- Biochemistry: The study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
- Bioengineering: The study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
- Bioinformatics: The interdisciplinary scientific field that develops methods for storing, retrieving, organizing and analyzing biological data. A major activity in bioinformatics is to develop software tools to generate useful biological knowledge.
- Biophysics: The study of biological processes by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
- Biotechnology: The study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
- Botany: The study of plants
- Cell biology: The study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
- Developmental biology: The study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure.
- Ecology: The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment.
- Entomology: The study of insects
- Epidemiology: a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
- Ethology: The study of animal behavior
- Evolutionary biology: The study of the origin and descent of species over time
- Genetics: The study of genes and heredity.
- Hematology (also known as Haematology): The study of blood and blood-forming organs.
- Microbiology: The study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living organisms
- Molecular biology: The study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
- Neuroscience: The study of the nervous system
- Physiology: The study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
- Population biology: The study of groups of conspecific organisms
- Structural biology: a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
- Toxicology: The study of the effects of chemicals on living organisms
- Zoology: The study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior.
Medical Related Branches
Another list of life sciences branches in Medicine and its related categories
Medicine is the basic applied science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It is related to health and prevention methodologies of illness. Here are some more life science branches in Medical Sciences.
- Anesthesiology: The branch of medicine that deals with life support and anesthesia during surgery.
- Cardiology: The branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the heart and the blood vessels.
- Dermatology: The branch of medicine that deals with the skin, its structure, functions, and diseases.
- Endocrinology: The branch of medicine that deals with disorders of the endocrine system.
- Gastroenterology: The branch of medicine that deals with the study and care of the digestive system.
- Gynecology: The branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive systems and the breasts.
- Hematology: The branch of medicine that deals with the blood and the circulatory system.
- Hepatology: The branch of medicine that deals with the liver, gallbladder and the biliary system.
- Neurology: The branch of medicine that deals with the brain and the nervous system.
- Nephrology: The branch of medicine which deals with the kidneys.
- Oncology: It is the branch of medicine that studies of cancer.
- Ophthalmology: The branch of medicine that deals with the eyes.
- Otolaryngology: The branch of medicine that deals with the ears, nose, and throat (ENT).
- Pathology: The study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
- Pediatrics: The branch of medicine that deals with the general health and well-being of children.
- Pharmacology: The study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
- Pulmonology: The branch of medicine that deals with the respiratory system.
- Psychiatry: The branch of medicine that deals with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
- Radiology: The branch of medicine that employs medical imaging to diagnose and treat disease.
- Rheumatology: The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases.
- Surgery: The branch of medicine that uses operative techniques to investigate or treat both disease and injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.
- Urology: The branch of medicine that deals with the urinary system and the male reproductive system.
- Veterinary medicine: The branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, disorder, and injury in non-human animals.