Enzyme Kinetics: Kinetic Study of Enzymatic Reactions

Enzyme Kinetics: Kinetic Study of Enzymatic Reactions

Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes. In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is measured and the effects of varying the conditions of the reaction are investigated. Studying an enzyme’s kinetics in this way can reveal the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, its role in metabolism, how its…

What is Enzyme Catalysis ?

What is Enzyme Catalysis ?

What is an enzyme? Enzymes are organic molecules, pretentious in nature that are specialized to catalyze biological reactions. Here these can be termed as “Biological Catalysts” (or) “Biocatalysts” (or) “Middle man of Nature”. What is an Enzyme? What is the meaning? The name ‘enzyme‘ (enG=in; zymeG=Yeast) literal means “in yeast“. This was referred to denote…

Biochemical Properties and Mechanism of ATP

Biochemical Properties and Mechanism of ATP

ATP contains two phosphoanhydride bonds (connecting the 3 phosphates together) and one phosphodiester bond (connecting a phosphate to the ribose ring). The pKa’s for the reactions H+ ATP3- —> ATP4- + H+ and HADP2- —> ADP3- + H+ are about 7.0. So the overall charges of ATP and ADP at physiological pH are -3.5 and…

What is the Structure, Compositions and Functions of Plasma membrane?

What is the Structure, Compositions and Functions of Plasma membrane?

The Plasma membrane is considered to conform to the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane proposed by singer and Nicholson. The membrane is composed of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. There is wide variation in the lipid-protein ratio between different cell membrane. Lipids are asymmetrically distributed within the bilayer of the membrane. The major lipid…

Nucleic Acids : Basics and Types

Nucleic Acids : Basics and Types

Nucleic acids are polymers composed of monomer units known as nucleotides. There are very few different types of nucleotides. The main functions of nucleotides are information storage (DNA), protein synthesis (RNA), and energy transfers (ATP and NAD). Nucleotides, shown in Figure 1, consist of sugar, a nitrogenous base, and phosphate. The sugars are either ribose…

Proteins : Basic and Structural organization

Proteins are very important in biological systems as control and structural elements. Control functions of proteins are carried out by enzymes and proteinaceous hormones. Enzymes are chemicals that act as organic catalysts (a catalyst is a chemical that promotes but is not changed by a chemical reaction). Proteins Basic units The building block of any…

Lipids: What are Lipids, Phospholipids and Cholesterol?

Lipids: What are Lipids, Phospholipids and Cholesterol?

Lipids are involved mainly in long-term energy storage. They are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water. Secondary functions of lipids include structural components (as in the case of phospholipids that are the major building block in cell membranes) and “messengers” (hormones) that play roles in communications within and between cells. Lipids are composed…

Carbohydrates : Classification and its Basics

Carbohydrates : Classification and its Basics

The carbohydrates are an important class of naturally occurring organic compounds These include glucose (grape sugar), fructose (Honey sugar), Sucrose (Cane sugar), Starch and cellulose (wood).  They are all composed of C, H and O. In general, carbohydrates can be represented by the formula Cm(H2O)n. Thus glucose, C6H12O6 can be written as C(H2O)6. It was a french…